and management studies
Section 2 of the PMBOK® guide
shows a diagram showing that Project management has an overlap with both general management knowledge as well as application
We borrow heavily from theories
and practices that are taught in leading MBA and other management courses. Although we do not explicitly reference specific
management theories, they and their practices underlie much of the “Tools and Techniques” that we use to improve
project (and project team) performance.
This paper focuses on the various
management methods and techniques used today to select, manage, improve and dismantle project teams including:
Belbin – work styles (9)
Myers Briggs – personality indicators (16)
MTR-i - personality indicators (8)
Graphology – personality indicators
Disc - personality indicators
Social styles – social style description (4)
BTSA - Benziger Thinking Styles Assessment (4)
Many of the management theories
seek to place human behaviour into groupings of 4, 8, 16 or some other distinct ‘labeled’ boxes. From Belbins “Facilitators and Plants” to Benzigers “Frontal right and Basal
Belbin identified nine separate
team roles—Co-coordinator, Implementer, Completer-Finisher, Monitor-Evaluator,
Plant, Resource Investigator, Shaper, Team Worker and Specialist. Each of these
team roles was associated with characteristic types of personality.
assesses an individual's team role based upon his or her Psychological Type.
Eight team roles are utilized: Curator, Innovator, Scientist, Crusader,
Sculptor, Explorer, Conductor, Coach
Each team role
is also mapped onto the Sixteen Personality Types measured by many well-known Type Indicator
DISC/Four Temperaments/Thomas International/Performax etc (common usage in business
since 1980's but the model has been around since ancient Greece)
influence, steadiness, compliance
BTSA (Benziger Thinking Styles
Katherine Benziger – Benziger's work, model and assessment systems are based on the measurement of brain function
and energy consumption in the brain.
Her work has for the past 25 years focused on the proper and ethical development and application of personality assessing
in the global business environment. Benziger's systems are not psychometric tests - Dr Benziger prefers the term personality
assessing, rather than personality testing,
says that when people adapt their natural thinking and working styles to fit expectations of others, normally created by work
and career, tension and stress results. People are not happy and effective if they behave in unnatural ways
and Profile - Effective teamwork depends on team members adjusting to the expertise
and capabilities of others. Personality factors enable people to fulfill some
team roles and limit their ability to play others.
Team Role-Indicator (MTR-i) is an instrument that applies the concept of Jungian type to team role functioning. As a result, MTR-i complements other Type Indicators by facilitating the comparison
between an individual's innate psychological type and his or her work team role.
The MTR-i can be completed in less than 20 minutes and involves the rating of
48 characteristic attitudes.
The MTR-i is particularly useful because of its linking of
Psychological Type to team role and facilitating the exploration of potential
differences between an individual's personality preferences and work persona.
This makes it well-suited for use in workshops on Psychological Type as well
as for team development exercises.